The Silk Road is a historically important international trade route between China and Europe. Because China silk comprised a large proportion of the trade along this ancient road, in 1877, it was named the “Silk Road” by an eminent German geographer. Usually it can be classified into Northern Silk Road on the land Southern Silk Road on the land and the Silk Road on the sea. The Northern Silk Road on the land usually refers to the routes start from Chang traveling west to Wuwei, passing though Hexi Corridor to Dunhuang and go west to Europe. The Southern Silk Road on the land usually refers to the route starts from Sichuan Province and go south to India and Burma. It is now included in the World Heritage List of UNESCO.33 historical sites are along the road in total and 22 of them distribute in Shaanxi, Henan, Gansu and Xinjiang of China.
From the time Zhang Qian opened up the world-famous Silk Road during the Han Dynasty, until the collapse of the Yuan Dynasty, it enjoyed a history of about 1.600 years. The ancient Silk Road contributed greatly to the cultural exchange between China and the West. From the second century BC to the fifteenth century AD, splendid civilizations among China, India, Greece, Persia and Rome were exchanged along this famous trade route, making the route a great “Cultural Bridge” between Asia and Europe. Together with the economic and political exchange between the East and West, religions of the West were introduced into China via the world-famous route. Like Buddhism and Islam. From time immemorial, the Silk Road has been a route of friendly intercourse between the Chinese and foreign people. The Silk Road greatly promoted the exchanges of economy, technology and culture among the Asian, the European and the African. It made the whole world colorful.