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Tibetan nationality is one of the 56 ethnic groups in China, is the aboriginals of Tibetan Plateau, which is a agricultural tribe originated from the Yalu Tsangpo River. According to archaeologists that Tibetan's ancestors began to live in along Yalu Tsangpo River about 4000 years ago.
Chinese people call them "Zangzu", Tibetans called themselves "Fan". they had many different names in history , in Tang any Song dynasties they were called "Tufan", in Yuan dynasty called "Xifan", in Ming and Qing dynasties they were called "Tubote, Tanggute"and so on. People in different area have different appellations in Tibetan language, people lived in A’li area call themselves "Duiba", who in Houzang area called themselves"Zangba", people in Qianzang zone were called "Weiba" and those lived in Qinghai called themselves "Anduo". Ba and Wa means people in Tibetan language.
Population and Distribution
Now there are about 7,500,000 Tibetans all over the world. There is about 6,280,000 Tibetans in China, spread in Tibetan autonomous region, Qinghai and Sichuan province also the Qingdi in Yunnan, Gannan in Gansu, which is the eighth major ethnic groups in China; Tibetans also distributed in India, Bhutan, America and Canada.
Language and characters
Tibetan has their own language and characters, Tibetan language belongs to the Han language family was divided into three kinds of dialects: Zang, Kang, An'duo. Tibetan people use Tibetan characters for written communication, which have a long history and its importance is second only to Chinese characters in China. Punctuation mark among Tibetan have simple form and very few variety, it use in different way to other languages.
Literature Tibetan literature is rich and colorful including writer's literature and folklore, ranking the forefront in numbers among the ethnic minorities China. King Gesar is a folk epic , it’s the longest Rap epic poetry knowing in the world, and the classic Tsangyang Gyatso's Love Song enjoyed a high prestige in the world.
Arts Tibetan Operas including Xizang Tibetan Opera, Anduo Tibetan Opera, Dege Tibetan Opera, Changdu Tibetan Opera, they are different in voices, music, performance and costume. Tibetan traditional music has distinctive characteristics and rich varieties ,including folk music, religious music and court music. Folk music including folk songs,Rap music and opera music; religious music including chant music and instrumental music. There are various Tibetan national musical instruments.
The basic features of Tibetan clothes are long sleeve, wide waist, long skirt and thigh boot. Men’s clothing is bold and virile while the women’s dress is graceful and elegant, decorated with pearls, jewels, gold and jade, it’s the distinctive style of highland woman. Tibetant clothes is colorful and beautiful which is reflected in color matching and composition. Their cloth are mainly in blue and white, decorated with gorgeous waistband and decorative border. Tibetans take the “Hada” seriously, regarding it as the most precious gift, which is a kind of white textile,about20-30cm wide and 1-2meters long, were made of yarn or silk, it used in happy events or to greet guests.
Tibetan has their own eating habits, the butter ,tea, zanba, beef and mutton are the four treasures of Tibetans, as well as the barley wine and milk food. Tibetan diet has staple food, dishes and soup. taste is mild and placid, seldom using acrid seasoning except salt leek and garlic .
Tibetans have lots of festivals, there are festivals in almost every month, Xuedun Festival and Pray Festival are two famous among them. Xuedun Festival is one of the most important festivals of Tibetan was hold on July 1st lasting four or five days, Xuedun means yoghourt party, so it was explained the festival to eat yoghourt. The Pray Festival is the biggest religious activity also the folk activity in Tibetan area, hold twice a year, one is in June 15th and the other is in the first to the third of the first of the month.