Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves located 45 kilometers east of Turpan City, built on the western cliff of Mutougou valley at the foot of Flaming Mountain. There are altogether 83 caves chiseled on the cliff and 57 still existed. it has murals covering an area of 1,200 square meters. It is one of the largest Buddhist grottoes in Turpan as well as Xinjiang.
Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves belong to Gaochang grottoes, which mainly refer to the Buddhist grottoes in Turpan area. Buddhism was introduced to Xinjiang in the 1st century BC, and from Western Han dynasty to Yuan dynasty, it was the dominant religion in Xinjiang. At the height of the Buddhist development in Xinjiang, Turpan and Khotan, and Kizil were known as the three Buddhist centers in the Western Regions. In the flaming mountain of one hundred miles in Turpan, there are grottoes in almost every valley.
The construction of Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves started from South and North dynasty (5 CE), through Tang dynasty, Five dynasty, Song and Yuan Dynasty, altogether 7 centuries. During the time, it has been the Buddhist center of Gaochang area.
At the end of the 13th century, when the royal family of Gaochang moved to Yongchang, Gansu province and after the spreading of Islam to Turpan, Buddhism gradually declined, and the Buddhist caves of the Bezeklik declined. At the beginning of 20 CE, the explorers of Russia, Germany, Britain and Japan took a lot of murals and statues back to their countries, and the eyes of the frescos were all dug out by Muslims, the Buddhist caves suffered severe damage, but the remains are still gorgeous and elaborate. In 1982 Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves was listed by the state council as the national key cultural relic protection unit.